German revolution of 1848

by jebbl (printable version)

In 1948 Europe experienced a series of revolutions, most of which failed. This is a quiz about the revolutionary movements in the German Confederation.


German March Revolution of 1848

The of the French King in 1848 motivated protests in Germany. On March 15 1848 the Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich after violent conflicts. Metternich symbolized the political leader's opposition to reforms and democracy.
In Prussia the king agreed on and commemorated the victims of the violent conflict in (called "Märzgefallene"). All German rulers accepted ending their role as .
In early the German National Assembly was elected. About 85% of the population had the right to vote. On May 18 1848 its members first convened in the St. Paul's Church in .
Possible options: resigned - abdication - liberal - February - Berlin - absolute rulers - Frankfurt - reforms - male - May
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Early reforms included freedom of the press and other civil rights.
The National Assembly was preceded by a parliament of delegates of the individual German states.

When did the Hecker Uprising happen?

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Friedrich Hecker, Gustav von Struve were radical republicans and attempted to overthrow the monarchy in April 1848. The uprising failed, as did another attempt by Struve in September 1848.

September Crisis 1848

By early fall 1848, groups regained power. The Frankfurt Parliament's lack of power had become apparent in the .
The German Confederation had encouraged Prussia to start a war against Denmark. Denmark intended to annex Schleswig and Holstein, causing outrage among German . In August 1848 Prussia signed an with Denmark without consulting the Frankfurt national assembly. The National Assembly the armistice on September 8, but on September 16 it the independent action of the Prussian government. This surrender demonstrated the rise of the counter-revolution.
Accepting the armistice lead to an in Frankfurt. A conflict between and the poorer population sparked a revolt in Saxony. The radical republican Gustav von proclaimed a republic but the uprising failed as it clashed with governmental troops.
Possible options: rejected - nationalists - Struve - armistice - uprising - First Schleswig War - counter-revolutionary - landowners - accepted
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Most info can be found here.

When was the Vienna Uprising?

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"The Vienna Uprising of October 1848 was the last uprising in the Austrian Revolution of 1848." [1]
The name of the Austrian military commander was Windisch-Grätz. Robert Blum was a member of the Frankfurt Parliament. He was executed in early November 1848.


Backlash in Prussia

The Prussian king
was captured by Prussian troops in November 1848.

The new consultative parliament in Prussia
was elected using a three-class franchise system.

introduced a constitution that kept him in power.

The Prussian Assembly of March 1848
was abolished in December 1848.

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The franchise system was based on the income of the voters. By late 1848, the counter-revolution was largely successful.

Failure to establish a German nation state

A of political groups were represented in the Frankfurt National Assembly. wanted to unite Germany while keeping the old rulers in power. wanted a parliament with significant influence on the government. wanted to take away most of the former sovereigns' power.
Another conflict arose over the of the new state. Some favored a "Greater Germany" that included both and Austria. Others preferred a smaller Germany without Austria as it was easier to establish. A small Germany avoided the question of in the new state and the problem of non-German parts of Austria like Hungary.
The parliament ultimately settled on the small version of Germany. It drafted a and offered the Prussian king to become the Kaiser of the new state. But the Prussian king the offer in April 1849 because he opposed the revolution.
Conservatives and liberals left the parliament while groups on the left formed the "." It was, however, dissolved in June 1849.
Possible options: Democrats - Prussia - Liberals - rejected - territory - Rump Parliament - constitution - wide range - Conservatives - hegemony
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The Frankfurt parliament accepted the constitution on March 28 1849.
The Prussian king became Kaiser of a small Germany in 1871.
The Austrian deputies left the parliament on April 5 1849, the Prussian deputies left it on May 14.

When did the last revolutionaries surrender?

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The last revolutionary troops surrendered on July 23 1849 in Rastatt near the French border.

When was the Punctation of Olmütz signed?

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The Punctation of Olmütz of November 1850 was a treaty between Prussia and Austria that re-established the German Confederation that had been dissolved in 1848.
Prussia had founded the Erfurt Union in May 1849, but the German states in the south refused to join, fearing Prussian hegemony. In Olmütz Prussia agreed to give the leadership role in the German states back to Austria.

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